ApisCP utilizes firewalld (opens new window) for its firewall. Rampart is a module that serves as a wrapper for fail2ban (opens new window), a brute-force deterrent that blocks threats through firewalld. These two components act in tandem to keep your server secure while exercising some intelligence. Rampart is for ephemeral blocks that automatically expire after a fixed duration (see network/setup-firewall (opens new window)) whereas a separate firewalld permanent whitelist/blacklist is provided.
During installation, ApisCP will detect the connected IP address and whitelist it to avoid triggering a block by fail2ban, for example if you forget your password multiple times. If your IP address changes or you setup ApisCP from behind a proxy, then you can easily update the whitelist with
cpcmd scope:set rampart.fail2ban-whitelist '220.127.116.11'
To view active fail2ban whitelists use scope:get (opens new window):
cpcmd scope:get rampart.fail2ban-whitelist
Whitelists may be IP address (18.104.22.168) or CIDR range (22.214.171.124/24).
rampart.fail2ban-whitelist is an append-only operation. Edit
/etc/fail2ban/jail.conf by hand to remove old IP addresses.
rampart.fail2ban-whitelist is one of few append-only Scopes, which means values may be added to it but not removed directly. This usage is intended for permanent changes.
For temporary whitelisting, use
cpcmd rampart:whitelist which uses a separate whitelist (ipset). Entries may be added or removed (see below). Any users who behave badly will still trigger Rampart's protection mechanism, but won't be blocked. Users will be greeted with a notice in the panel of what lines triggered the block.
ApisCP restricts access to all ports except for well-known services (HTTP, FTP, mail, SSH) and optional services (CP, user daemons). A second whitelist, which allows access to blocked ports as well as overrides Rampart can be set using
cpcmd rampart:whitelist 192.168.0.1/24
These entries are permanent and supersede enforcement by fail2ban. A whitelist may be removed by specifying remove as the second parameter, e.g.
rampart:whitelist '192.168.0.1/24' 'remove'
Single quotes are not compulsory, but help the shell (Bourne shell) discriminate between boundary arguments. Certain metacharacters, such as $, (, ), ;, and | have special meaning.
# Delegated Whitelisting
Site Administrators can whitelist a limited number of IP addresses by through Account > Whitelisting. This value can be toggled per-site by adjusting rampart,max. If set to
DEFAULT it inherits rampart,max service value. A few specific values for rampart,max imply specific meanings:
-1: unlimited whitelisting entries (OS limit)
0: disable whitelisting
> 0: up to n whitelist entries
A delegated whitelist entry permits access even if the IP would have been banned by brute-force protection. Delegated whitelisting uses the same API call,
rampart:whitelist(), but is not equivalent to whitelisting as admin, which bypasses any firewall rules and allows absolute access. See Delegation precedence below for changing this behavior.
Entries are codified in rampart,whitelist as a list of IPv4/IPv6 addresses. When a site is deleted, the whitelist is not released until all sites that hold a reference to the whitelist have been removed.
# Permit 20 whitelisted IPs to domain.com EditDomain -c rampart,max=20 domain.com # Allow otherdomain.com unlimited access EditDomain -c rampart,max=-1 otherdomain.com
rampart:whitelist() (without arguments) allows the caller to whitelist its public IP if not previously whitelisted.
rampart:temp($ip = null, $duration = 7200) works similarly with a temporary whitelisting that deauthorizes after the set interval (default: 7200 seconds). These features may be invoked with Beacon (opens new window) to simplify batch scripting with dhcp clients.
# Delegation precedence
New in 3.2.18
Delegation is placed in the
ignorelist ipset. This takes precedence after administrative ingress rules, but before brute-force rejection rules. Thus a delegated whitelist entry is only protected from brute-force rejection. Delegated whitelisting may use the
whitelist ipset, which takes precedence before any administrative rules are applied giving the IP address absolute permission. Likewise when
rampart:whitelist() is called by admin, these entries are always added to the
# Put 126.96.36.199 in whitelist cpcmd rampart:whitelist 188.8.131.52 # Put 184.108.40.206 in ignorelist cpcmd -d domain.com rampart:whitelist 220.127.116.11
Delegation set name is controlled via [rampart] => delegation_set. delegation_set may be either
whitelist. When converting over, manually rename the set.
cpcmd scope:set cp.config rampart delegation_set ignorelist ipset swap whitelist ignorelist systemctl restart apiscp
# Speculative whitelisting
New in 3.2.34
Addresses that delist themselves from the panel interface (
rampart:unban API command) are temporarily whitelisted. This speculative whitelisting expires after [rampart] => speculative_whitelisting seconds have passed (default:
300). An additional window is granted to allow users to continue to update passwords on other machines while retaining connectivity to the server.
Normal filter rules apply during this window meaning it is still possible for a ban to escalate to a permanent all-port recidive ban if thresholds are met.
Setting this value to 0 disables the feature.
A blacklist exists to explicitly deny addresses that are not blocked by Rampart's adaptive firewall.
cpcmd rampart:blacklist 192.168.0.10
Blacklists are lower priority than whitelist and higher priority than fail2ban. CIDR ranges also work and can be fed lists for example from IPdeny (opens new window):
curl -o- http://www.ipdeny.com/ipblocks/data/countries/cn.zone | while read -r IP ; do cpcmd rampart:blacklist "$IP" ; done
All blacklist listings are permanent unless removed with
cpcmd rampart:blacklist($ip, 'remove').
A service filter inspects a log for offending activity. A service accumulator is a counter internal to fail2ban that keeps track of offending activity per IP and filter over a duration. Once this threshold is reached, a ban is placed on the IP for all ports configured for that filter.
Service accumulators by default permit 3 attempts (
f2b_maxretry) in a 5 minute period (
f2b_findtime). Additional failures result in a 10 minute ban (
f2b_bantime). These values may be altered in Bootstrapper.
# Change monitoring interval to 15 minutes for Dovecot cpcmd scope:set cp.bootstrapper f2b_dovecot_findtime 900 # Change bantime for SSH to 1 hour cpcmd scope:set cp.bootstrapper f2b_sshd_bantime 3600 # Change malware trigger threshold to 5 hits cpcmd scope:set cp.bootstrapper f2b_malware_maxretry 5 # Apply settings upcp -sb fail2ban/configure-jails
Per-service accumulators may be set specifying
f2b_ + filter name + _ + accumulator var. For example, to change the bantime setting for "dovecot" filter to 300 seconds:
cpcmd scope:set cp.bootstrapper f2b_dovecot_bantime 300 upcp -sb fail2ban/configure-jails
Service filters are available in /etc/fail2ban/filter.d. Each jail in the next section uses a single filter to monitor for bad activity.
A variety of jails provide granular protection over public services. The following table summarizes these jails. This may also be used as a reference for inbound ports.
|dovecot||110, 995, 143, 993||IMAP/POP3 failures|
|evasive||80, 443||HTTP brute-force|
|malware||80, 443||HTTP uploads containing malware|
|mysqld||3306||Remote MySQL failures|
|pgsql||5432||Remote PostgreSQL failures|
|postfix||25, 587, 465||Anomalous SMTP traffic|
|postfix-sasl||25, 587, 465||SMTP (SASL auth) failures|
|recidive||ALL PORTS||Recurrent failures|
|spambots||25, 587||Known bad SMTP fingerprints|
|sshd||22 (or ||SSH failures|
|vsftpd||20, 21, 989, 990||FTP failures|
"Recidivism" is a specific term derived from fail2ban's recidive jail (opens new window) for repeat offenders. If a user repeats a ban across any monitored service 5 times (
f2b_recidive_maxretry) in 12 hours (
f2b_recidive_findtime), then a 10-day ban (
f2b_recidive_bantime) is applied. Values may be altered by changing the parenthesized value with a Scope.
# Ban recidive offenders for 1 month cpcmd scope:set cp.bootstrapper f2b_recidive_bantime $((86400*30)) upcp -sb fail2ban/configure-jails
# Unbanning IP addresses
All IP addresses automatically unban from Rampart after a fixed duration. To manually unban an address from Rampart use cpcmd:
# Ban 192.168.0.4 in recidive, which is a long-term ban > 1 week cpcmd rampart:ban 192.168.0.4 recidive # Validate which jails 192.168.0.4 is present in cpcmd rampart:is-banned 192.168.0.4 # Unban 192.168.0.4 from all jails cpcmd rampart:unban 192.168.0.4
Permanent blacklist and whitelist entries can be removed with firewall-cmd
# Add 192.168.0.4 to the permanent whitelist cpcmd rampart:whitelist 192.168.0.4 # Show all whitelist entries ipset list whitelist # Remove 192.168.0.4 from whitelist cpcmd rampart:whitelist 192.168.0.4 remove
# Public backdoor
ApisCP provides many means to unban an IP address for a legitimate user:
- Delegated Whitelisting as described above
- cp-proxy (opens new window), if the proxy is installed on non-hosting server
- Automatic expiry as discussed in Service filters
- Whitelisted access to ApisCP on 2083 when
True(disabled by default). A Scope,
cp.whitelist-accessexists to facilitate this. See SECURITY.md for security implications, specifically the Rampart subsystem of ApisCP that guards panel access.